Modern Molecular Photochemistry of Organic Molecules: A Review
Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light with matter, and how it can induce chemical transformations. Organic photochemistry is a branch of photochemistry that focuses on the reactions of organic molecules, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, amines, and so on. Organic photochemistry has many applications in fields such as synthesis, catalysis, spectroscopy, materials science, and biology.
modern molecular photochemistry of organic molecules pdf
One of the most comprehensive and authoritative textbooks on organic photochemistry is Modern Molecular Photochemistry of Organic Molecules by Nicholas J. Turro, V. Ramamurthy, and Juan C. Scaiano[^1^]. This book is a complete revision of Turro's classic text Modern Molecular Photochemistry published in 1991[^2^], which has been the standard of the field for three decades. The book covers the fundamental principles of photochemistry, the methods for determining the mechanisms of organic photoreactions, and the photochemistry of the basic functional groups of organic chemistry. It also includes special topic chapters on supramolecule organic photochemistry, and the role of triplet and singlet molecular oxygen in organic photochemistry.
The book is divided into four parts: Part I introduces the basic concepts of photochemistry, such as electronic transitions, excited states, energy transfer, quenching, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photophysical processes. Part II discusses the experimental techniques for studying organic photochemistry, such as spectroscopy, kinetics, flash photolysis, laser photolysis, and matrix isolation. Part III presents the mechanisms and applications of organic photoreactions involving various functional groups, such as alkenes, carbonyls, aromatic compounds, heterocycles, radicals, and ions. Part IV explores some advanced topics in organic photochemistry, such as supramolecular systems, molecular oxygen chemistry, photosensitization, photoredox catalysis, and photobiology.
The book is written in a clear and pedagogical style, with numerous examples, exercises, figures, tables, and references. It is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers who want to learn or deepen their knowledge of organic photochemistry. The book is also available as a pdf file[^3^] for online access or download.
Modern Molecular Photochemistry of Organic Molecules is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the theory and practice of organic photochemistry. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the field, with a balance between fundamentals and applications. It is a must-have for students and researchers who want to master this fascinating and important area of chemistry.
One of the most exciting advancements in organic photochemistry has been the development of reactions utilizing visible light photocatalysts. These reactions allow the use of low energy photons at visible wavelengths to induce organic molecules into reactive excited states. Visible light photocatalysts can be classified into two main types: metal-based and organic-based. Metal-based photocatalysts, such as ruthenium, iridium, and copper complexes, can act as both photosensitizers and redox mediators, transferring electrons or energy to organic substrates. Organic-based photocatalysts, such as flavins, acridiniums, and phenazines, can also act as photosensitizers and redox mediators, but they are more environmentally friendly and cost-effective.
Visible light photocatalysis has enabled the discovery of novel and efficient organic transformations that are otherwise difficult or impossible to achieve by conventional methods. Some examples of these transformations are: CâH functionalization, CâC bond formation, CâN bond formation, CâO bond formation, CâX bond formation (X = halogen), CâS bond formation, CâP bond formation, CâB bond formation, CâSi bond formation, CâSn bond formation, CâHg bond formation, NâN bond formation, NâO bond formation, NâS bond formation, OâO bond formation, OâS bond formation, OâP bond formation, SâS bond formation, SâP bond formation, PâP bond formation, and radical cyclization. These transformations have broad applications in synthetic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, materials science, and biochemistry.
Another important aspect of organic photochemistry is the role of molecular oxygen in organic photoreactions. Molecular oxygen can act as a quencher, a sensitizer, a mediator, or a reactant in photochemical processes. Depending on the nature of the oxygen species involved (singlet oxygen or triplet oxygen), oxygen can participate in various types of reactions with organic molecules, such as ene reactions, [2+2] cycloadditions, [4+2] cycloadditions, [4+4] cycloadditions, [2+4] cycloadditions, [3+2] cycloadditions, [3+4] cycloadditions, [2+3] cycloadditions, [1+2] cycloadditions, [1+4] cycloadditions, hydrogen abstraction reactions, electron transfer reactions, and radical reactions. These reactions can lead to the formation of valuable products such as hydroperoxides, peroxides, endoperoxides, dioxetanes, dioxiranes, ozonides, epoxides, lactones, hydroxylamines, nitroso compounds, nitro compounds, and nitrate esters. Oxygen chemistry is relevant for many biological processes such as photosynthesis and photodynamic therapy. 29c81ba772